A surgeon makes a request to your hospital’s surgical block committee to overlap his surgeries. According to a recent study, which of the following is most likely increased when a surgeon performs overlapping surgeries versus nonoverlapping surgeries?

Surgical residency programs often use overlapping surgeries to train residents and fellows, allowing noncritical portions of a procedure to be performed without the primary surgeon present. Graduated responsibilities are central to preparing residents and fellows for independent practice after training. The practice of overlapping surgeries differs from concurrent surgeries in which critical portions of one or more procedures occur simultaneously; in overlapping surgery, the primary surgeon is present for critical portions of the procedures. Previous research on the safety of overlapping surgical procedures has generally suggested they are safe for patients, but these studies have been limited to single institutions or a single surgical type. Additionally, these prior studies did not rigidly define...

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