The opioid crisis has impacted millions of people in the United States and comes with great societal and economic morbidity. According to the CDC, each day nearly 175 Americans die of drug overdose, of which the majority are opioid-related deaths. Further, the annual economic burden of prescription opioid-related overdose, abuse and dependence is estimated to be greater than $78.5 billion, the bulk of which is connected to health care, substance abuse treatment and lost productivity. For the 51 million Americans who undergo inpatient surgery each year, opioids are still the principal modality for postoperative acute pain management, with over 80 percent of patients receiving opioids after low-risk surgery. New persistent opioid use after surgery, defined as opioid prescription fulfillment between 90 and 180 days after the surgical procedure in a previously opioid naïve patient, has been recently identified as a significant public health concern and is one of...

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