One of your practice partners announces she is pregnant and requests assignment to anesthetic cases that will not put her pregnancy at risk. In a modern operating room setting, exposure to which of the following is MOST likely to be teratogenic to the human fetus?

Anesthesia caregivers incur occupational exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, medications, chemicals, solvents, and infectious agents. Women comprise about 30 percent of anesthesiologists, 36 percent of residents, and 51 percent of clinical anesthetists. In the general population, 10 to 20 percent of women who know they are pregnant will miscarry before 20 weeks gestation. Survey evidence indicates there is a slight increase in the relative risk of spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities in offspring of female operating room physicians, however the etiology for this risk remains uncertain.

Although MRI does not involve ionizing radiation, cells are exposed to strong magnetic fields. This technology has been in...

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