The prevention of perioperative neurocognitive disorders is a priority for patients, families, clinicians, and researchers. Given the multiple risk factors present throughout the perioperative period, a multicomponent preventative approach may be most effective. The objectives of this narrative review are to highlight the importance of sleep, pain, and cognition on the risk of perioperative neurocognitive disorders and to discuss the evidence behind interventions targeting these modifiable risk factors. Sleep disruption is associated with postoperative delirium, but the benefit of sleep-related interventions is uncertain. Pain is a risk factor for postoperative delirium, but its impact on other postoperative neurocognitive disorders is unknown. Multimodal analgesia and opioid avoidance are emerging as best practices, but data supporting their efficacy to prevent delirium are limited. Poor preoperative cognitive function is a strong predictor of postoperative neurocognitive disorder, and work is ongoing to determine whether it can be modified to prevent perioperative neurocognitive disorders.

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