In the current edition of Anesthesiology, Ngamsri et al. provide compelling experimental evidence that a molecular pathway involving stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and subsequent enhancement of extracellular adenosine signaling can be targeted to treat excessive inflammation and collateral tissue damage in two animal models of peritonitis. Experimental models of peritonitis are frequently used in laboratory studies to gain mechanistic insight on the pathogenesis of sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Consistent with a previous study, their findings suggest that excessive inflammation and uncontrolled collateral tissue damage are part of the pathogenesis of sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Their findings have translational implications for patients, as pharmacologic strategies to enhance hypoxia-inducible transcription factors or adenosine receptor signaling could be used to prevent or treat harmful and excessive inflammation.

In their study, the authors demonstrate...

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